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During Key Stage 1 pupils learn about themselves as developing individuals and as members of their communities, building on their own experiences and on the early learning goals for personal, social and emotional development. They learn the basic rules and skills for keeping themselves healthy and safe and for behaving well. They have opportunities to show they can take some responsibility for themselves and their environment. They begin to learn about their own and other people's feelings and become aware of the views, needs and rights of other children and older people. As members of a class and school community, they learn social skills such as how to share, take turns, play, help others, resolve simple arguments and resist bullying. They begin to take an active part in the life of their school and its neighbourhood.
During Key Stage 2 pupils learn about themselves as growing and changing individuals with their own experiences and ideas, and as members of their communities. They become more mature, independent and self-confident. They learn about the wider world and the interdependence of communities within it. They develop their sense of social justice and moral responsibility and begin to understand that their own choices and behaviour can affect local, national or global issues and political and social institutions. They learn how to take part more fully in school and community activities. As they begin to develop into young adults, they face the changes of puberty and transfer to secondary school with support and encouragement from their school. They learn how to make more confident and informed choices about their health and environment; to take more responsibility, individually and as a group, for their own learning; and to resist bullying.
End of key stage statements
The following statements describe the types and range of performance that the majority of pupils should characteristically demonstrate by the end of the key stage, having been taught a relevant programme of PSHE. The statements are designed to help teachers judge levels of achievement and the extent to which their pupils are making progress.
Key Stage 1
Children can identify and name some feelings (for example through interpreting facial expressions) and express some of their positive qualities. They can demonstrate that they can manage some feelings in a positive and effective way. They begin to share their views and opinions (for example talking about fairness). They can set themselves simple goals (for example sharing toys).
Children can make simple choices about some aspects of their health and well-being (for example by choosing between different foods and between physical activities, knowing that they need sun protection) and know what keeps them healthy (for example exercise and rest). They can explain ways of keeping clean (for example by washing their hands and keeping their hair tidy) and they can name the main parts of the body. Children can talk about the harmful aspects of some household products and medicines, and describe ways of keeping safe in familiar situations (for example knowing how and where to cross the road safely). They can explain that people grow from young to old.
Children can recognise that bullying is wrong and can list some ways to get help in dealing with it. They can recognise the effect of their behaviour on other people, and can cooperate with others (for example by playing and working with friends or classmates). They can identify and respect differences and similarities between people, and can explain different ways that family and friends should care for one another (for example telling a friend that they like them, showing concern for a family member who is unwell).
Key Stage 2
Children can demonstrate that they recognise their own worth and that of others (for example by making positive comments about themselves and classmates). They can express their views confidently and listen to and show respect for the views of others. They can identify positive ways to face new challenges (for example the transition to secondary school). They can discuss some of the bodily and emotional changes at puberty, and can demonstrate some ways of dealing with these in a positive way. They can talk about a range of jobs, and explain how they will develop skills to work in the future. They can demonstrate how to look after and save money.
Children can make choices about how to develop healthy lifestyles (for example by knowing the importance of a healthy diet and regular exercise). They can identify some factors that affect emotional health and well-being (for example exercise or dealing with emotions). They can make judgements and decisions and can list some ways of resisting negative peer pressure around issues affecting their health and wellbeing. They can list the commonly available substances and drugs that are legal and illegal, and can describe some of the effects and risks of these. They can identify and explain how to manage the risks in different familiar situations (for example discussing issues connected to personal safety).
Children can explain how their actions have consequences for themselves and others. They can describe the nature and consequences of bullying, and can express ways of responding to it. They can identify different types of relationship (for example marriage or friendships), and can show ways to maintain good relationships (for example listening, supporting, caring). They can respond to, or challenge, negative behaviours such as stereotyping and aggression. They can describe some of the different beliefs and values in society, and can demonstrate respect and tolerance towards people different from themselves.
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